The thirteenth element of the Mendeleyev’s table is aluminum, where it is designated Al. Refers to the group of the lightest metals — one of the three most common elements in the earth’s crust. Aluminum has a low specific gravity, and also the ability easily undergo any machining. It has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. And due to the surface oxide film, it is resistant to corrosion.
This is a paramagnetic metal with white-silver shade, extremely light. Density = 2.7 g / cm³. With the t° 658 — 660 °C (depending on purity), aluminum melting, and boiling at 2500 °C. Specific heat of fusion is 390 KJ / kg. Specific heat of evaporation = 10.53 MJ / kg. Brinell hardness — within the limits of 24−32 kg / mm². Temporary resistance to rupture 10−12 kg / mm². In alloy it will be 38−42 kg / mm². The high plasticity is 50% of in pure aluminum and 35% in technical. It has a high thermal conductivity 203.5 W / (m K) and electrical conductivity 0.037 Ohm • mm2 / m, which compose about 66% copper electrical conductivity 0.0179 Ohm • mm2 / m. This is a small paramagnetic with the linear expansion 24.58 • 10−6 / ° C (t ° from 20 to 200 ° C). In fact, he can produce alloys with all known metal, very often with silicon, magnesium and copper.
In usual conditions on the surface of aluminum formed thin and strong oxide film, which allows him do not enter into interaction with such oxidants as H2 O, O2, HNO3. This and specific gravity are the main reason of such wide usage of aluminum as construction material.
Aluminum. Physical qualities.
|Atomic (molar) mass g / mol||26,98|
|Density [g / cm3]||2,7|
|Temperature of melting t°С||660,3°С|
|Level of oxidation||3|
|Thermal conductivity K [W / (m K)]||237|
|Molar volume cm3 / mol||10|
Aluminum is lighter than steel three times. He is stable to corrosion, perfectly stamping, cutting, drilled, has a high thermal conductivity and non-toxic. He is used in food industry to producing foil, kitchen dishes, different packaging’s. In fact, today this metal was displaced by such metal as carbon fiber. Maybe the one disadvantage of aluminum is low strength. To increase the strength he is alloyed by magnesium and copper.
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