Dysprosium is a light metal with silvery shine. It relates to rare-earth elements of lanthanide group. It is designated in periodic system as Dy. Atomic number is 66. Its content in earth crust constitutes 5x10-4 %. It is not occurred in native state. Along with other rare-earth metals, it is contained in different minerals: apatite, bastnasite, gadolinite, monazite. It was invented in 1886 at spectroscopical analysis of holmium earth. 20 years later, Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier managed to separate it in a pure state. Nowadays, it is obtained by industrial method of DyCl3 and DyF3 recovering with calcium, sodium or lithium.
Physical and chemical properties
When a temperature is lower than 1384 °C, dysprosium possesses hexagonal α-lattice. And when a temperature is higher, it has β-lattice. It is slowly oxidized up to a temperature of 100 °C in air. However, at super-heating, it starts to extensively interrelate with hydrogen, oxygen, halogens, nitrogen. It can be easily dissolve in mineral acids, but it almost does not react with alkalis.
Physical quality of Dy
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||162.5|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||n/a|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||10.7|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||291|
Dy relates to a group of non-ferrous metals. Available mill-products: rod, wire, sheet. It is used in alloying of zinc alloys. Adding of dysprosium to zirconium guarantees an expansion of cross-section of thermal-neutrons capture. At that, alloy workability is significantly increased. Dysprosium ions conduce to excitation of infra-red radiation with a wave length of 2,36µm. Industrial chemistry uses dysprosium as an effective catalysis. Nuclear energetics applies hafnat, boride, borate, oxide of dysprosium for manufacture of special paints, enamels that ionizing radiation. Dysprosium extensively captures neutrons and serves as a basis for pins that regulate nuclear disintegration. Alloy of dysprosium and iron is a powerful magnetostrictive material. GOST 23 862 13−79 specifies a method of dysprosium oxides definition.
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