Europium is soft silvery-white metal that relates to a group of lanthanides. Atomic number is 63 and atomic weight is 151.96. It is designated in periodic system as Eu. It was separated from rare-earth elements just before XX century by French chemist Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, who named it in honor of Europe. Nowadays, industry obtains it by a method of vacuum recovering from Eu2 O3 oxide with a help of lanthanum, carbon, EuCl3 electrolysis. Among lanthanides, europium is one of the most expensive metals. Depending on index of purity, it can cost from 800 to 2000 dollars per 1 kilogram.
Europium covers with oxide film in air very fast. It is kept in cans filled with liquid paraffin or kerosene. Chemical valency is +2 +3. It separates almost all metals from salt solutions.
Melting point is 826 °C, boiling temperature is 1597 °C, and specific weight is 5.24 g /cm3. Being a workable metal, it can be easily processed — bent, rolled, drilled, milled, cut. At a temperature of 1.8°K and pressure of 80 HPa, europium becomes a super-conductor.
Physical properties of Eu
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||151.9|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||n/a|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||13.9|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||178|
It relates to a group of non-ferrous metal. Available mill-products: rod, wire, sheets etc. They can be used in nuclear reactors in the capacity of neutron absorber (borate, hexaboride, Eu2 O3 oxide). Europium can form light-sensitive joints. Eu2 O3 oxide is applied by nuclear -hydrogenous energetics for thermochemical water splitting. Unstable europium 154 can be used as a nuclear fuel. Europium ions can generate orange radiation with wave length of 0.61 µm, which serves as a basis for making of liquid and solid-state lasers.
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