Nichrome 60−15, nichrome 80−20 are heat-resistant alloys of chrome and nickel. They are indispensable in modern electrical engineering. Nichrome 80−20 is the most popular alloy composition with 80% of Ni, which was the most heat-resistant materials until quite recently. A high percentage of Ni was reduced by increasing a proportion of iron in order to reach a cost-cutting of alloy. The most successful was a composition of 15% of Cr, 60% of Ni, and 25% of Fe. Nichrome resistance is higher than in ferro-nichrome, therefore usually the latter is utilized at a low temperature. Ferro-nichrome and nichrome alloys keep a rare combination of high electrical resistance (1.05−1.40 Ohm-mm2 / m) and a great thermal resistance. For this reason, they represent two the most important classes of alloys along with chromal, that are used in a form of strip or wire for a manufacture of high-temperature electric heaters. For those are commonly used alloys, doped with silicon, rare-earth and alkaline-earth metals to 1.5%. Service temperature limit of this sort of alloy converges to 1200 °C; in other grades to 1250 °C.
Fecral alloy has also a very high electrical resistance. It is characterized by all of the above advantages and spheres of using. But fecral is cheaper iron-chromium-aluminum alloy, and nichrome is an expensive nickel-chromium alloy.
Nichrome 60−15, nichrome 80−20 combine heat resistance with a good workability (can be rolled in foil or very thin wire). Such alloys are more heat resistant than fecral, but unlike the latter, they contain expensive and scarce nickel. Fecral is much cheaper; it differs by a high heat resistance, but it is more fragile and therefore less workable (cannot be rolled in a very thin ribbon or wire).
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