Scandium is silvery soft metal with specific yellowish tint. It is the 21st element of 4th period of periodic system, where it is designated as Sc. It was invented in 1879 by Swedish chemist Nielsen. A name derived from name of Scandinavia region. Properties of this element were predicted by Mendeleev long time ago. Scandium content in earth crust constitutes about 10 g/t. Its deposits were located in coal measures (scandium tin-stone, beryl, fluorite). Reclamation process is connected with coal processing.
Chemical and physical properties
Sc can have α-hexagonal lattice as in magnesium or cubic body-centered β-lattice. Transition temperature constitutes 1336 °C. Pure scandium (more than 99.5%) is very soft and can be easily mechanically processed. Boiling temperature constitutes 2837 °C, melting point is 1541 °C. By its properties, this element is similar to lanthanides. It has positive valency in all compounds as lanthanum, yttrium, aluminium.
Physical properties of Sc
|Atomic (molar) weight mole/h||44.9559|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||15.8|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||15.8|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||332.7|
It is used in metallurgy, nuclear energetics, hydromagnetic generators, medicine, electrical engineering, manufacture of refractory materials, luminophores, solar batteries, lasers. Radioactive isotope 46 Sc with a half-life period of up to 84 sec is used for treatment of malignant diseases. In metallurgy, it is used as control «mark» of technical process progress. Alloy of scandium with aluminium possesses high forgeability, strength, and utilized in manufacture of sheet, rod, wire.
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