Gallium is a soft malleable metal of silvery-white color with blueish tint. This is element of the main subgroup, the third group of periodic system with atomic number 31 that is designated as Ga. It has two isotopes. Its name was offered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran who provided a new metal with name of his motherland — Gallia.
By its properties, gallium is similar to aluminium. Metal is protected from oxidizing with protective film. But it can react with hot water and superheated steam. Gallium can interrelate with mineral acids with salification and separation of Н2 in the cold. Gallium does not react with hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, silicon and bromine. It can disrupt different metals at a high temperature because it differs with very powerful action, unlike any other metal.
Crystalline gallium possesses a number of polymorphic modifications, among of which there is the only one item is thermodynamically-stable and the other are unstable. Density of hard Ga is 5.904 g/cm3 at a temperature of 20 °C. In a liquid state, it possesses a density of 6.095 g/cm3 — in other words, it is swelled out. Boiling temperature constitutes 2230 °C and melting point is 29.8°C. In liquid state, it is kept at a temperature range of 30−2230 °C. At 1100−1200, it has low steam pressure. Liquid or hard Ga has the same specific electric resistance.
Physical properties of Ga
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||69.723|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||5.59|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||28.1|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||270.3|
Gallium arsenide is a perspective semi-conductor. There are manufactured lasers and light-emitting diodes of blue and ultraviolet range with its help. Gallium is relatively expensive metal. Its cost per 1 kg is about 1.5 thousands of dollars. It is not only perfect lubricant but a basis of special metallic clue as well.
Available mill-products: wire, bars, sheets. Methods of percentage test of additional components are specified by GOST. For example, percentage composition of tin in alloy is specified by GOST 13 637.5−93; iron content — GOST 13 637.4−93; sulfur content — GOST 13 637.8−93; selenium content — GOST 13 637.6−93; tellurium content — GOST13 637.8−93; phosphorus content — GOST13 637.9−93. Gallium itself is specified by GOST 12 697.13−90
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