Thermocouple copel sheet, strip CuNi40
Copel alloy consists of nickel and cuprum with addition of ferrum and manganese. However, their mass fraction is slight as other alloys of nickel. They are used in a field of pyrometry for measuring a temperature in different environments. This alloy is similar to analogous alloy — constantan. Constantan is one of the representatives of copper-nickel alloy.
Advantages of copel:
1. Workability; high corrosion characteristics;
2. Density is 8,9 g/cm3;
3. Melting point is 1290 °C;
4. An annealing is done at a temperature of 800−850°C; a hot working is done at 1150 °C. A coefficient of a thermal expansion is 14•10−6 °C-1.
Alloy is capable of withstanding a heating up 800 °C without a loss of the main properties. Maximum thermo-electromotive force appears in combination with cuprum, ferrum, chromel. In this condition, a coefficient of thermal real resistance is quite poor. Such properties are typical only to this alloy. At a temperature of 100 °C, a thermoelectromotive force is 6,95 V, and at 600 °C rises to 49,0 V. Copel, constantan are utilized in measuring electrical gauge for manufacturing the resistance standards.
It is commonly used in pyrometry more often in a form of wire (Ø 0,2 — 3,2 mm), and less often in a form of strip, rod for manufacturing thermocouples, heating controllers, compensating lead wires. Thermocouple consists of electric conductor fumes, that are soldered in one end and placed into environment oriented for thermometry («hot junction»). Then, exposed ends are going to be placed into a thermostatic regulator (so-called cold junction). Thanks to alloyage, a thermocouple of this kind can stand a short-term effect of temperature up 1300 °C and work in an aggressive environment.
In terms of thermal emf, thermocouple copel-chromel is number one. It is durably used at the temperatures up 800 °C; Compensating lead wires provide a transfer of thermoelectromotive force to a measuring device. There are used cheaper wires for compensating lead wires.
Percentage composition of CuNi44
|≤ 0.1||≤ 0.15||42.5 — 44||≤ 0.1||0.6||54.4 — 57.4||0.1 — 1|
A grade CuNi44 is the most common alloy. It can be delivered in a form of wire (Ø 0,10 — 12 mm), rod (Ø 12,0 — 100,0 mm) and strip (0,1−5,0 mm of thickness and 3−600 mm of wideness).
Physical characteristics at a temperature 20 °C
|Hardness, soft alloy HB 10 -1||90 MPa|
|Hardness, hard alloy HB 10 -1||195 MPa|
|Hot working temperature:||1150°C|
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