Rod, wire, pipe made of brass
Brass is made on a basis of two metals: Zn + Cu. Copper dominates in composition. Depending on its quantity, brass can have different names. If brass content constitutes 90%, alloy will be called tombak. It possesses good plasticity and corrosive resistance. Tombak has golden-red tint and is widely used not only in industries but in manufacture of different decorative elements as well. Sometimes brass can be alloyed with other metals such as iron, nickel, manganese etc. This alloy was known in ancient Rome. It became widespread at the begging of 19th century.
|Cu||Zn||Pb%||Fe%||P %||Sb and Bi|
|Basis||18,7−21%||0.03%||0.1%||0.01%||0,005% и 0,002%|
Brass price depends on content of metals in it. The cheapest alloy has the highest content of zinc because Zn is relatively not expensive metal. But if zinc content is more than 45% of the total volume, physical and technical properties worsen. Such alloy is rarely used in industries. It becomes less malleable and more brittle. If zinc content is less than 30%, it strengthens the alloy. Plasticity is also kept. Average market price floats from 265 $ to 515 $ per ton of brass.
There are a few types of brass: Brass that possesses high plasticity and contains not less than 30% of Zn is called single-phased simple brass. It differs with good resistance to atmospheric moisture and can withstand temperature gradient. Brass that can be easily forged and rolled and possesses good plasticity is called two-phased simple brass. There is one more type — multiphased brass that combines all advantages of above mentioned types. If in copper-zinc alloy is added some additional component, f.e. plumb, there is obtained special alloy brass.
An important advantage of brass alloy is good workability. There can be manufactured a lot of things out of brass: parts of cars, complex-shaped devices, watch gears, bearings, branch conduits, pipes, details of chemical or plumbing equipment. It possesses good corrosive resistance. Due to this, it is much-requested in manufacture of cocks, stop valves. Due to plasticity, there can be easily obtained different types of mill-products: sheet, bar, wire. There are made electrodes out of thin bars for special welding methods. Plates, strips, sheets, various sections are widely used in mechanical engineering.
A substantial defect of brass is corrosion cracking. If a detail is formed by cold pressure, there are cumulated residual stresses. Moisture and corrosives can penetrate into microcracks. It leads to rupture of material. In order to avoid this, brass must be slowly heated up to a temperature of 260 °C and then slowly cooled. This is called low-temperature annealing.
Details that were previously casted are void of this demerit and they have no need to be annealed.
1. Deformable brasses. They content high percentage of copper (up to 90%). Alloy possesses good anticorrosive, antifriction properties, plasticity. It is used in manufacture of finding for interior decoration. This brass is easily welded with other metals, for example with steel. As a result, there is obtained a material that is called bimetal. It is widely utilized in electrical engineering.
Binary brass is used in manufacture of tubes with small diameters for motor-vehicle and refrigerating engineering. There can be manufactured bushings, connecting pieces, radiators out of it. Due to anticorrosive properties, alloy is widely used in manufacture of stop valves, cocks, special-type bolts, rivets.
Multicomponent brasses are broadly utilized in shipbuilding, in manufacture of device cases, bolts, findings, door-handles. It is resistant to effect of sea water. Used also in aircraft engineering and manufacture of chemical equipment.
2. Casting brasses are used in gears and bearings for mechanical engineering, in manufacture of various detector elements, manometers and details that work under heavy loads at a temperature up to 300 °C.
3. Jewellery brasses serve for manufacture of ornaments in daily graft or interior, in manufacture of churchware. Such an object can be mistaken for gold because of indicative golden tint. There are also alloys of bright-yellow or coppery colors.
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