Wire, sheet, strip, rod, wire made of tin bronze
They are used since ancient times. They are well-utilized by industry. Due to a large range of crystallization, they have a low fluidity. Cavities are not formed in these bronzes, but small scattered porosity can be present. Tin bronzes have a linear shrinkage. It is very small and constitutes 0.8% during a process of sand casting, and 1.4% during chilling. Such properties facilitate a production of castings that do not require high tightness.
Importance of phosphorus
This element is often present in tin bronzes. Firstly, phosphorus reduces hydrogen content in a melt and deoxidizes copper. Secondly, it increases strength. Thirdly, it improves fluidity and allows manufacturing of complex shaped castings with thin walls (for example, qualitative art castings). A presence of phosphorus in bronzes with a minor amount of tin improves wear resistance due to an appearance of solid particles of copper phosphide in structure. However, phosphorus has a downside. It impairs plasticity and thereby its content does not exceed 0.5% in deformable alloys.
Tin bronzes have a large number of zinc in composition, but not more than a level of saturation concentration. Nickel contributes strength properties and improves deformability and plasticity, increasing density, corrosion resistance, and reducing segregation. Plumb increases density, fluidity, antifriction quality. Bronzes that contain nickel are thermally strengthened during age-hardening and thermohardening.
According to their frequency, they occupy a leading position among copper alloys in industries. With increasing of aluminium content in alloy, their mechanical properties are increased as well. Those alloys, in which aluminium consists 5 to 8%, have affordable mechanical properties.
Such alloys have a unique combination of properties: considerable flexibility and toughness, good heat and electrical conductivity, high resistance to corrosion and mechanical destruction.
With increasing of silicon content in alloys (not more than 3.5%), rupture strength and elongation of alloy are increased as well.
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