Holmium relates to rare-earth elements of the third group of chemical elements of Medeleev’s systems, where it is designated as Ho. Atomic number is 67, molar weight is 164.93, valency is +3. It can easily react with nitrogen, hydrogen, bromine, chlorine but it is resistant to effect of fluorine. It is a soft light-grey metal and stable isotope of lanthanide group, which can be easily mechanically processed. It is obtained by method of fluoride HoF3 recovering with calcium. This element was discovered in «erbium earth» by Swedish scientist Jacques-Louis Soret with a help of spectral analysis. The chemist from Swiss, Per Teodor Cleve succeeded in separation of holmium oxide. He named it in honor of Holmia — ancient Swedish capital. A content of holmium in water of world ocean is about 2,2x10--7%, in earth crust is 1,3x10--4%. It can be met in minings of other rare-earth metals — bastnasite, apatite, monazite, gadolinite.
Physical properties of Ho
|Atomic (molar) weight mole/h||164.93|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||n/a|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||16.2|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||301|
It relates to a group of non-ferrous metals. It is much-requested in metallurgy, nuclear energetics, manufacture of microelectronics, thermo-electric materials, lasers. Pole-pieces of superconducting holmium magnets give powerful magnet fields. Erbium-holmium alloy is virtually indispensable material. Radioactive isotope Ho-166 is used in analytic chemistry as radioactive indicators. Holmium ions can generate infra-red rays with a wave length of about 2 µm. Holmium salts serve for activation of luminophores, manufacture of special glasses that can absorb ionizing radiation. Available mill-products: bars, wire, sheet. GOST 23 862 3−79 specifies a definition of holmium oxide additives by spectral method.
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