Tungsten heads a group of the most refractory metals. That is why it is used in manufacture of the most important goods. By refractory quality, only carbon can outstrip it. Usually, this metal does not react with chemical elements. Due to its refractory qualities, it is widely used in metallurgist industry. By density, tungsten is identical to gold: 19.30 g/cm³ VS 19.32 g/cm³. After defining of tungsten melting point (3387−3420°С), this metal had being used for manufacture of glowing filaments in lamps, heaters, electron-beam tubes.
|Temperature of characteristic receiving in °С||20°С|
|Coefficient of linear thermal expansion α [1/degree]||43×10−6|
|Ultimate tensile strength (rupture strength) kg/mm2||35|
|Specific heat at 20 °C [J/(kg/deg)]||0.134|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||300.173|
|Specific electric resistance R Оhm-mm2/m||0.054|
Tungsten alloys are indifferent to high temperatures in vacuum. That is why they are used in targets of X-ray generator equipment and special capsules under load. Inherently, pure tungsten is malleable and flexible metal. Buy it becomes very hard if to add small amount of carbon residual elements. Due to its chemical resistance, it does not react with nitric, salt or any other acid. In order to force metal to react with acids, it is necessary to heat it up. After that, tungsten solutes in chloronitric acid and reacts with chloride and sulfur.
Heating up to more than 1400 °C, tungsten starts to react with carbon. As a consequence, there forms consistent carbide WC. It is used in mechanical engineering at milling of steel and metal-ceramics. It looks like a powder in amorphous state. This powder is similar to titanium and hafnium carbides. Due to its properties, tungsten is used as main element in manufacture of tool shells, bullet slugs, heaters in vacuum furnaces. There are made non-consumable electrodes out of tungsten wire. Nowadays, tungsten is the most requested material among heavy metals in modern industrial manufacture.
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