Tungsten rod, bar
Tungsten is chemically resistance metal. It is resistant to moisture presence, concentrated solutions of alkalis and acids. It is also resistant to oxygen and chloronitric acid up to 400 °C; to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen up to 600 °C; to ammonia up to 700 °C; to carbonic oxide, nitrogen, boiling mercury up to 800 °C. It can react with a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acid, mixture of hydrogen superoxide and ammonia (when attaining a temperature of red heat), with hydrogen sulfide and chlorine (at 250°C), with boiling sulfur, hot chloronitric acid, nitric acid, molten nitrite, sodium and potassium chlorate, lead dioxide, sodium nitrite, bromine, iodine, fluorine. WC carbide is obtained by reacting with carbon at a temperature of 1400 °C. WO2 is obtained by interreacting with sulfur dioxide, water steam (at a temperature of red heat), oxides of Mg, Th, Al, carbon (t° 1200 °C and higher).
Unique heat resistance (melting point of tungsten is +3422°C), high resistance to thermal creeping, high module of elasticity, minimum coefficient of thermal expansion in comparison to other metals, resistance to aggressive environment, corrosion resistance, strength, long operational life, reliability. Many steels lose their hardness after holding in temperature of red heat. Tungsten alloys do no lose their hardness. Such property is called red-hardness. Tool steel alloyed with tungsten allows performing the most intense metal-working with dozens of metres in a second speed. Due to refractoriness, this metal is considered to be a basis of the most consistent and heat-resistant alloys. Only carbon possesses higher melting point among simple elements.
|Temperature of characteristic receiving in °С||20°С|
|Coefficient of linear thermal expansion α [1/degree]||43×10-6|
|Ultimate tensile strength kg/mm2||35|
|Specific heat at 20 °C [J/(kg/deg)]||0.134|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||300.173|
|Specific electric resistance R Оhm-mm2/m||0.054|
There are a few demerits:
— difficulty of tungsten obtaining in pure state;
— high volume weight;
— brittleness at low temperature. Tungsten bar is not enough malleable at standard temperatures. Due to its unique properties, it can be processed (rolled, drawn, forged) only after heating up.
Bar has standard gauges of cross section. It is the most requested product. Tungsten billet is obtained by powder metallurgy method. Complexity of tungsten bar manufacture is caused by low technological tungsten plasticity at standard temperatures. Its plasticity increases after heating up, but strength stays the same. That is why it manufactured with a help of hot working under pressure. Tungsten bar is heated up and then hammered at forging rotary machine. Bars are made with diameters of 2−3 mm and delivered in a form of straight pieces.
Tungsten bar and wire are used in the capacity of semi-fabricate for essential parts that work in extreme conditions of significant loads and high temperatures. Nowadays, mechanical engineering, metal-working, petroleum chemistry, metallurgy, mining industry cannot do without tungsten bar. It is indispensable material at hot working of metals under pressure (piercer plugs, matrix, extrusion rams) and alloying of tool steels. It is used by glass industry in the capacity of thimbles for glass melting, consumable electrodes, etc. It serves for manufacture of compression molds and mold cores for alloys under pressure. Tungsten electrodes are widely used for welding of heat resistant and low-alloyed steels. Radioelectronics, electrical engineering use tungsten filament for glowing spirals and cathodes in direct viewing tubes, lamps, and other vacuum tubes.
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