Lanthanum is light-silvery metal. It is an element of periodic system (6th period of the 3rd group). Atomic number is 57. It was invented during exploration of «cerite earth». In 1826, Carl Mosander managed to prove that «cerite earth» is impure. There was one more element except for cerium. In 1839, scientist separated this element and named it lanthanum (from Greek — disappear, hide). Nowadays, industrial obtaining of this element starts from separation of crude ore on fines. Firstly, there is separated cerium. Then, there are separated praseodymium, neodymium, and lanthanum by method of extracting. Lanthanum has 3 crystalline models: hexagonal α-lattice (up to 227 °C), cubical β-lattice (up to 861 °C), α-Fe body-centered lattice.
Physical properties of La
|Atomic (molal) weight mole/h||138.9|
|Melting heat kJ/mole||8.5|
|Heat conductivity K [V/m*K]||13.4|
|Evaporation heat kJ/mole||402|
Lanthanum oxide La3 O3 is used in manufacture of special optical glass for cinema and photographic equipment, astronomical lenses, prisms, electronic micrography. La3 O3 serves as a basis for superconductors of high temperatures along with oxides of yttrium, strontium, barium. Lanthanum itself has got a wide application in electronics, nuclear energetics, manufacture of hydrogen acceptors, metal- hydride and thermo-electric materials. It is applied as a recovering material of rare elements. Plutonium is extracted with a help of lanthanum during reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Lanthanum is added into molten uranium for increasing the weight of plutonium liquid-alloy that comes to the surface along with lanthanum. A capper is soldered for further reprocessing by chemical method.
Types of mill-products
Tungsten bars of EWLa1 group have La3 O3 additives. They are manufactured with a length of not less 500 mm and diameter of 1.5−8 mm. Such electrodes increase hump current and entrainment capacity for 50%. They are much more durable than cerium and thorium. Its primary grind keeps much longer at equilibrium distribution of La3 O3 thought the full length of electrode. Lanthanum salts LaCl3, LaCO3, LaF3, LaSO4 contained in alloys for manufacture of sheets, bars, wire significantly improves workable properties of material.
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