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Lanthanides

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Lanthanides are a whole chemical family that consists of fourteen elements united by common features. They are located in the third group of the sixth period of periodical system. They are used as alloy additives to steels (conduce to increase of mechanical resistance, heat-resistance, resistance to corrosion) and for obtaining of glass that hinders ionizing radiation. Multiple lanthanide compounds are used for manufacture of lacquers and paints.

General characteristics

Lanthanum is a metal of light-grey color. It can be easily deformed. Mechanical properties depend on quantity of additives. A whole group of lanthanides possesses significant magnetic properties that conduce to manufacture of different magnetic materials on their basis. Their cost is fairly affordable.

Physical properties of La

Description Identification
Atomic (molar) weight mole/h 138.9
Oxidation rate 3
Density [g/cm3]

6.17
Melting point 920°С
Melting heat kJ/mole 8.5
Heat conductivity K [V/m*K] 13.4
Evaporation heat kJ/mole 402

Abundance of lanthanides depends on a general consistency: elements of even atomic number are met more frequently than element with odd numbers. There are known about two hundreds of minerals. 70 of them are rare-earth minerals that contain additives of these elements. It proves that such elements are not so rare. «Rare» is a common ancient name of lanthanides. It is only an homage to past. For example, cerium occurs on earth much more than lead and the rarest of rare-earth metals are more widespread than mercury. The point is about their dispersion and difficulty of obtaining.

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